Managing Attention in Persuasive Manipulation

Because of neuro-psychological nature (as neural correlate of consciousness and as neural correlate of a content of experience) of the Persuasive Manipulation, it can be used as educational method. By mastering ability of evoking particular type of attention, educators can increase productivity and efficacy of the educational process.
Clinical model of differential approach in identification of cognitive processes and activities offers five types of attention that could be categorized as:
-Focused attention (ability to respond discretely to specific stimuli);
-Sustained attention (vigilance- ability to maintain a consistent behavioral response during continuous and repetitive activity);
– Selective attention (ability to maintain a behavioral or cognitive set in the presence of competing stimuli);
– Alternating attention (ability to shift their focus of attention and move between tasks having different cognitive requirements);
–  Divided attention (ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands).

The successful education relies on all types of attention and by doing so, it delivers highest rate of comprehension and memorization offered information by recipient.

The objectives for effective process of managing attention in Persuasive Manipulation must be identified as:
– Quick identification of the most important item in a complex environment;
– Sustained attention on to related information and ignoring other stimuli;
– Access memories that aren’t currently active, but that could be relevant to the current focus;
– Shift attention to new information as it arrives.
To focus attention to relevant information is a challenging and relies on CNS ability to ignore stimuli unrelated to the educational process. Acquisition and processing information is physiologically possible for multiple noncompeting stimuli, if those originate from different sources dimensionally but within the same modality. Such ability allows overcoming neuronal refractory period and proper use of selective, alternating and sustained attention tremendously increases volume of educational material during single session.   Simultaneously divided attention is age defined and requires extensive training. Focused attention is essential phenomena for formation of short-term memories, which based on level of emotional response, become stored as long-term memories.
For successful tutelage the knowledge of differences in individual circadian rhythms could be very useful. But most important is to accompany visual-audio presentations of educational material with other sensual stimuli that could be associated with strong emotional response during such presentation. Attention Restoration Theory (ART) drown form this particular phenomena and success of its practical applications is convincing.

References

Allport, A. (1989). “Visual Attention.” In Foundations of Cognitive Science, edited by M. Posner, pp. 631–682. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.

Anderson, John R. (2004). Cognitive psychology and its implications (6th ed.). Worth Publishers. p. 519.

Campbell, J. (1986). Winston Churchill’s Afternoon Nap: An Inquiry into the Human Nature of Time. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Cho, J.-Y. (1990). “Attention: Cognitive Science Discoveries and Educational Practice.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.

Friedman, S. L., K. Klivington, and R. Peterson, eds. (1986). The Brain, Cognition, and Education, pp. 19–119. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press.

Gregory, R. L. (1987). The Oxford Companion to the Mind. New York: Oxford.

Hynd, G. W., et al. (1991). “Neurobiological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” School Psychology Review 20, 2: 174–186

Hobson, J. A. (1989). Sleep. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Johnson, Addie (2004). Attention: Theory and Practice. United States of America: SAGE Publications. pp. 1–24. ISBN 978-0-7619-2760-0.

Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. (1989). The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge University Press.

Livingstone, M. et al. (September 1991). “Physiological and Anatomical Evidence for a Magnocellular Defect in Developmental Dyslexia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 88: 7943–7947.

LeDoux, J., and W. Hirst. (1986). “Attention.” In Mind and Brain: Dialogues in Cognitive Neuroscience, pp. 105–185. New York: Cambridge.

Livingstone, M., et al. (September 1991). “Physiological and Anatomical Evidence for a Magnocellular Defect in Developmental Dyslexia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 88: 7943–7947.

P. MacLean, (1978), “A Mind of Three Minds: Educating the Triune Brain.” In Education and the Brain, edited by J. Chall and A. Mirsky, (Chicago: The National Society for the Study of Education).

McKay Moore Sohlberg, Catherine A. Mateer (1989). Introduction to cognitive rehabilitation: theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Ornstein, R., and P. Ehrlich. (1989). New World, New Mind: Moving Towards Conscious Evolution. New York: Doubleday.

Posner, M. I. & Petersen, S. E. (1990) The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13: 25–42.

Salvucci, D. D.; Taatgen, N. A. (2008). “Threaded Cogition: An integrated theory of concurrent multitasking”. Psychological Review 115: 101–130.

Schank, R. (1990). Tell Me A Story: A New Look at Real and Artifical Memory. New York: Macmillan.

Sylwester, R. (October 1990). “Expanding the Range, Dividing the Task: Educating the Human Brain in an Electronic Society.” Educational Leadership 40: 71–78.

Wolfe, J.M. (1994). “Guided search 2.0: a revised model of visual search”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1 (2): 202–238.