The fact that every one of us has own sense of reality and ability to learn are evident that we are genetically predisposed to intellectual activity. Would it possible for us to act as intelligent beings without creating our own set of false and true values? Learning is a cognitive looping and meta-cognitive processing. Discrimination of our own real (perception based) and false (imaginative) emotions is the sense of reality. Data shows that deception is the root for truth search we are all born with. The work of most prominent psychologists Freud, Piaget, Erickson, Watson, Skinner, Bandura, Vygotsky, Maslow, Rogers, Kohleberg, etc. includes many details and it covers various sides of physical, cognitive, and social development. Still, our sense of reality escaped rigorous scientific study, because until recently concept of Physioepistemology was not available. Here are some basic assumptions that might convince community to take another good look in more physical, than metaphysical approach in studying intellect and cognition. The Physioepistemology is the branch of natural science that studies processes of knowledge formation in self-organized biological systems, based on dynamism of the physiological processes and related to meta-cognitive sense of reality including unconscious and conscious components of mental reflection.
Physically, if birefringence (through double refraction) of ultra-low photon emission by neurons is responsible for cognitive processes, degree of polarization within neuronal networks will depend on concentrations of all elements circulated in cerebral fluid. If intelligence emerges as sensitivity to ultralow photon emission by network of particular neurons, it will be highly individualized and genetically predetermined.
Dynamically, learning starts from realization of differences between reality and dream as early as in pre-natal period. In this case, dream (pre-imagination) will come first prenatally as neuronal networks become available. Realization of own senses will appear with first inhale it takes full start. First breath of newborn will initiate perceptive signaling trough entire nervous system, first emotion produced, and part of this emotion is image of own existence. Increased concentration of nitrogen/oxygen in blood triggers mechanism of association of cross-linked neurons that in general can be counted as imagination. With time (individually varies) from few day to few weeks newborn learns to express senses trough emotions and by age of 6 month already able to produce full range of emotional expressions without real feeling. By age of three years most kids already trying to manipulate external environment (parents, care givers, social acquaintances) with/without tantrum and by age of six years old child should have fully operational imagination with some comprehension of very complex concepts of social hierarchy and some sense of power in social relations. The process of imagination is a basis for cognitive development, same way as physical development of receptors sensing ultralow photon emission basis for cognitive processing, and consequently, cognitive development is basis for social development. It is important to note that intellect is a social phenomenon. It is not nurture versus nature. It is nature (environment plus inherited genetics) multiplied by nurture (social influence) divided by individual creativity (imagination).
Moshman and Franks (1986) wrote: “An argument is valid if its conclusion necessarily follows from its premises, regardless of whether the premises and conclusion are empirically true or false.”
The premise of Physioepistemology is in the fact that most sense of reality is in the unconscious meta-cognitive process that has physiological need for knowledge. Let’s take for example time perception, which is a subjective feeling and complementary component of reality sense. William J. Friedman (1993) and David Eagleman studied time perception and found that different types of sensory information (auditory, tactile, visual, etc.) are processed at different speeds by different neural architectures. The brain must learn how to overcome these speed disparities to create a representation of the external world. Time perception has biological nature because it is a product of circadian and ultradian rhythms regulated by photosensitive proteins and byproducts of theirs metabolism. Coordination in different sensory modalities is unconscious. Time sense produces specious present required for qualitative conscious separation of present, past, and future, which is imaginary part of experience. That means we have unconscious expectations of our future and we have to learn how to manage it.