Making a Case for Physioepistemology

The fact that every one of us has own sense of reality and ability to learn are evident that we are genetically predisposed to intellectual activity. Would it possible for us to act as intelligent beings without creating our own set of false and true values? Learning is a cognitive looping and meta-cognitive processing. Discrimination of our own real (perception based) and false (imaginative) emotions is the sense of reality. Data shows that deception is the root for truth search we are all born with. The work of most prominent psychologists Freud, Piaget, Erickson, Watson, Skinner, Bandura, Vygotsky, Maslow, Rogers, Kohleberg, etc. includes many details and it covers various sides of physical, cognitive, and social development. Still, our sense of reality escaped rigorous scientific study, because until recently concept of Physioepistemology was not available. Here are some basic assumptions that might convince community to take another good look in more physical, than metaphysical approach in studying intellect and cognition. The Physioepistemology is the branch of natural science that studies processes of knowledge formation in self-organized biological systems, based on dynamism of the physiological processes and related to meta-cognitive sense of reality including unconscious and conscious components of mental reflection.
Physically, if birefringence (through double refraction) of ultra-low photon emission by neurons is responsible for cognitive processes, degree of polarization within neuronal networks will depend on concentrations of all elements circulated in cerebral fluid. If intelligence emerges as sensitivity to ultralow photon emission by network of particular neurons, it will be highly individualized and genetically predetermined.
Dynamically, learning starts from realization of differences between reality and dream as early as in pre-natal period. In this case, dream (pre-imagination) will come first prenatally as neuronal networks become available. Realization of own senses will appear with first inhale it takes full start. First breath of newborn will initiate perceptive signaling trough entire nervous system, first emotion produced, and part of this emotion is image of own existence. Increased concentration of nitrogen/oxygen in blood triggers mechanism of association of cross-linked neurons that in general can be counted as imagination. With time (individually varies) from few day to few weeks newborn learns to express senses trough emotions and by age of 6 month already able to produce full range of emotional expressions without real feeling. By age of three years most kids already trying to manipulate external environment (parents, care givers, social acquaintances) with/without tantrum and by age of six years old child should have fully operational imagination with some comprehension of very complex concepts of social hierarchy and some sense of power in social relations. The process of imagination is a basis for cognitive development, same way as physical development of receptors sensing ultralow photon emission basis for cognitive processing, and consequently, cognitive development is basis for social development. It is important to note that intellect is a social phenomenon. It is not nurture versus nature. It is nature (environment plus inherited genetics) multiplied by nurture (social influence) divided by individual creativity (imagination).
Moshman and Franks (1986) wrote: “An argument is valid if its conclusion necessarily follows from its premises, regardless of whether the premises and conclusion are empirically true or false.”
The premise of Physioepistemology is in the fact that most sense of reality is in the unconscious meta-cognitive process that has physiological need for knowledge. Let’s take for example time perception, which is a subjective feeling and complementary component of reality sense. William J. Friedman (1993) and David Eagleman studied time perception and found that different types of sensory information (auditory, tactile, visual, etc.) are processed at different speeds by different neural architectures. The brain must learn how to overcome these speed disparities to create a representation of the external world. Time perception has biological nature because it is a product of circadian and ultradian rhythms regulated by photosensitive proteins and byproducts of theirs metabolism. Coordination in different sensory modalities is unconscious. Time sense produces specious present required for qualitative conscious separation of present, past, and future, which is imaginary part of experience. That means we have unconscious expectations of our future and we have to learn how to manage it.



Amicable Behavior Modification by Persuasive Manipulation with use of the Neuroaccounting

Acquired behavior or learning without any punishment involved and applied as to individual as to social groups is the best way to achieve an adaptive reaction to the particular environmental change. The ultimate goal in this case is to identify the variables in behavior responsible for most suitable and long-lasting sustainable socially acceptable behavioral pattern of actions. To say it from functionality point of view, society is a representation of the patterns in statistically significant number of individual behaviors engaged in tangible activities with automatic internal stimulation. The negative reinforcement does not apply to social level of communication, because the cancelation of negative emotions within the same modality. For example, criminal intent may produce fear of punishment, but reward of increased social weight in particular social group of criminals can have higher positive reinforcement.
Persuasive Manipulation (PM) is a scientific approach committed to effectiveness with direct and frequent measurements and it requires use of Neuroaccounting as a tool for implementation. This method can be used for educational purpose only and applied only for assessment of learning outcomes. The objective for application of Persuasive Manipulation is to arrange cumulative effects of constantly changing environment with purpose to control process of learning during adaptation period. It produces an array of results, from limited creative skill acquirement to profound systemic change.
Because Neuroaccounting rely on established threshold in individual neuronal network as a response to affective or effective adaptive reactions, there currently are no other more suitable tools to detect positive effects in environmental changes regarding acquisition of novel behavior or withdrawing from old one. In this part, it is similar to classical operant conditioning, but it is different in an involvement of the controlled complex environmental changes and very sophisticated accounting of responses, such as a directed new creative tool development. It is specifically designed to promote creative part of intellectual process to increase adaptability, but in some controllable way that negative behavior (criminal intent, for example) is suppressed and is not a part of the possible outcome. It worth mention that positive effect in this case means increased expression of desirable behavior, without subjective evaluation of its value.
Another important point in use of Neuroaccounting is that complex multimodal environmental stimuli produce individual responses that may differ in an array of behavioral specifics, such as time of response or force of the emotions. It is very useful in determination of the degree of the extinction-induced response variability as a particular application and as for a functional assessment in general.

References

Brobst, B.; Ward, P. (2002). “Effects of public posting, goal setting, and oral feedback on the skills of female soccer players”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 35 (3): 247–57.
Brothers, K.J.; Krantz, P.J.; McClannahan, L.E. (1994). “Office paper recycling: A function of container proximity”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 27 (1): 153–60.
Dardig, Jill C.; Heward, William L.; Heron, Timothy E.; Nancy A. Neef; Peterson, Stephanie; Diane M. Sainato; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Ralph; Peterson, Lloyd R.; Susan B. Hersh (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
De Luca, R.V.; Holborn, S.W. (1992). “Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and non-obese boys”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 25 (3): 671–79.
DeVries, J.E.; Burnette, M.M.; Redmon, W.K. (1991). “AIDS prevention: Improving nurses’ compliance with glove wearing through performance feedback”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 24 (4): 705–11.
Dillenburger, K.; Keenan, M. (2009). “None of the As in ABA stand for autism: dispelling the myths”. J Intellect Dev Disabil 34 (2): 193–95.
Drasgow, E.; Halle, J.W.; Ostrosky, M.M. (1998). “Effects of differential reinforcement on the generalization of a replacement mand in three children with severe language delays”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 31 (3): 357–74.
Hagopian, L.P.; Thompson, R.H. (1999). “Reinforcement of compliance with respiratory treatment in a child with cystic fibrosis”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 32 (2): 233–36.
Kuhn, S.A.C.; Lerman, D.C.; Vorndran, C.M. (2003). “Pyramidal training for families of children with problem behavior”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 36 (1): 77–88.
Mulick, James A (2006). “Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis”. The Behavior Analyst 29 (1): 51–74.
Powers, R.B.; Osborne, J.G.; Anderson, E.G. (1973). “Positive reinforcement of litter removal in the natural environment”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 6 (4): 579–86.
Thompson, T. (1984). “The examining magistrate for nature: a retrospective review of Claude Bernard’s An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine”. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2 (41): 212–13.
Wong, S.E.; Martinez-Diaz, J.A.; Massel, H.K.; Edelstein, B.A.; Wiegand, W.; Bowen, L.; Liberman, R.P. (1993). “Conversational skills training with schizophrenic inpatients: A study of generalization across settings and conversants”. Behavior Therapy 24 (2): 285–304.


Role of Education on Increase of the Inherited Inequality

A transfer of the cultural capital including knowledge from one generation to another in the modern society, where the technological progress advanced to the level of high complexity and defines social stratification, education becomes the most important process in creating and substantiating social inequality and social differences. It is well established fact that the transfer of capital and wealth in a form of inheritance and gifts within families favors individuals for a higher level of education.
Homeschooling and families trading secrets became leading factors of the most influential potency in preserving some specific knowledge and cultural aspects of the financial stability and wealth within relatively small group of people. The support from competency-based education, unexpectedly for its creators and promoters, even increases the gap and allows formalize such transfer in a form of a degree from the most prestigious institutions without an attendance. At the same time, a naturally gifted children might benefit from competency-based education despite of the support from immediate family or community.
In a search for the most effective and efficient education we might ignore the necessity of the sociological research in this regard. Based on a theoretical model of intergenerational solidarity it is possible to weigh risks and benefits and find ways to regulate such processes with the best outcome for all parties involved.

References
Angel, Jacqueline L. Inheritance in Contemporary America: The Social Dimensions of Giving across Generations.
Davies, James B. “The Relative Impact of Inheritance and Other Factors on Economic Inequality”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 97, No. 3.
Dubner, Stephen. “How Big of a Deal Is Income Inequality? A Guest Post”. The New York Times. August 27, 2008.
Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert, “The Inheritance of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 16, No. 3, 2002.
Clignet, Remi. Death, Deeds, and Descendants: Inheritance in Modern America.
Flippen, Chenoa A. “Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Home ownership and Housing Equity.” The Sociological Quarterly, Volume 42, No. 2 .
Marable, Manning. “Letter From America: Inheritance, Wealth and Race.”
Miller, Robert K., McNamee, Stephen J. (Edited By) Inheritance and Wealth in America.
Shapiro, Thomas M. The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality. Oxford University Press. 2004.



Basics of Neuroaccounting

Computing all neuronal processes within its complexity in relation to behavior and intelligence is an objective for computational neuroethology. Neuroaccounting is a methodological approach for measurement of sensory pre-processing, biomechanical properties, processing (analyzing), and integration of models that represent brain, body, and environment as it sensing and acting during active perception.
Basic Principles of Neuroaccounting:
-Neuroaccounting cannot be used to predict human behavior – it only can be used to study complex neuronal interconnections and associations for future adjustment (change) through learning;
-Neuroaccounting cannot be used to establish developmental, mental, or other disorders – it only can be used for educational purposes and learning assessments;
-Social interactions in human communities defined as deterministic chaotic dynamics and responsible for environmental changes;
– Humans defined as a self-organizing deterministic systems displaying sensitivity to initial conditions in the environment and follow arrow of time;
– Humans can exhibit an almost infinite number of behaviors in different environments;
– Humans can employ, manipulate, and create infinite number of tools for different actions;
-Humans have constantly pass qualitatively different physical, emotional, and mental stages to exhibit more complex behavior in same environment;
-Human behavior objected by current modality, subjected by emotional response to environmental change, and affected by specific tools used during adaptation period;
– Neural plasticity responsible for motor control and learning. It characterized by long-term depression of inactive associated neuronal networks;
-Mechanisms for intrinsic physiological control of complex interacting networks within fluctuating environment include unconscious and conscious components;
-Individual subjectivism can be established and recorded only based on difference for particular community in response to the variety of learning techniques and multitude of learning parameters/rates;
-Strength of neuronal signaling between interacting networks should pass established threshold to be accounted as affecting or effecting and could not change the overall balance if modality of the communicating networks is different;

References:
M. A. Arbib (1995), The handbook of brain theory and neural networks.
M. A. Arbib (2003), Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.
R. D. Beer (1990). Intelligence as Adaptive Behavior: An experiment in computational neuroethology.
M. A. Boden (2006). Mind as machine. Oxford University Press.
T.H. Bullock (1999) Neuroethology has pregnant agendas. J. Comp. Physiol. A 185(4)
Camhi, J. (1984) Neuroethology. Sinauer. Sunderland Mass.
Chiel, Beer (1997), The brain has a body: Adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body and environment, Trends in Neuroscience.
D. Cliff (1990) Computational Neuroethology: A provisional manifesto. In J.-A. Meyer and S. W. Wilson (editors): From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive Behaviour (SAB90).
D. Cliff (2003) Neuroethology, Computational. In M. A. Arbib (editor): The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Second Edition. MIT Press Bradford Books.
Ewert, P. (1980) Neuroethology. Springer-Verlag. New York.
Full, Koditschek (1997), Templates and anchors: Neuromechanical hypotheses of legged locomotion on land
Holmes, Full, et al., (2006)The dynamics of legged locomotion: Models, analyses, and challenges..
Nelson, MacIver (1990), 2006 Sensory acquisition in active sensing systems.
Suga, N. (1989). “Principles of auditory information-processing derived from neuroethology.” J Exp Biol 146: 277-86.
Schürg-Pfeiffer E., Spreckelsen C., and Ewert J.-P. (1993) Temporal discharge patterns of tectal and medullary neurons chronically recorded during snapping toward prey in toads Bufo bufo spinosus. J. Comp. Physiol.
Zupanc, Günther K.H. (2004). Behavioral Neurobiology and Integrative Approach. Oxford University Press. New York.


Introduction to Neuroaccounting in PM Assessment

As computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics advance, it becomes necessary to introduce new methodology that should help better understand and effectively apply acquired knowledge in educational field. Most of neuroscience currently is exploring in areas of neurocomputations and synchronizations in different neuronal networks, while completely different models are available for application. Based on emergent nature of intelligence, Neuroaccounting employs integrative model of self organizing systems. While exploring objective evidence, Neuroaccounting defined by indication of subjective thresholds required for computational process to take place during unconscious and conscious intellectual activities.
It is essential to use Neuroaccounting in implementation of Persuasive Manipulation for Assessment (PM Assessment). While it might have some risk of abuse, such risk is not greater than any influence from social interactions. Ericksonians use some elements of Neuroaccounting for inducing during therapy sessions. Most distinctive commonality there is indirect and accommodating approach with possibility of some confusion techniques involved. The key is a learning experience on both sides of the communication. That places Persuasive Manipulation on the list very effective educational methods.
Neuroaccounting is the measurement, processing, and communication of information about ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions and solve problems or understand solutions for identical issues and learn the ways of self-adjustments. It is important to distinct emotional responses, rational (analytic) mental processes, creative potential, and socially acquired (adopted) stereotypical ways to respond to different changes in the environment as a separate entities during PM Assessment.

References:
Autohypnotic Experiences of Milton H. Erickson (Milton H. Erickson and Ernest L. Rossi), The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, July. 1977 20, 36-54, reprinted in Collected Papers Volume 1.
Andre M. Weitzenhoffer (1976) Introduction/forward in Hypnotic Realities Erickson & Rossi
Rosen (1982), My Voice Will Go With You, p. 211.
Botvinick, M., & Plaut, D.C. (2004). Doing Without Schema Hierarchies: A Recurrent Connectionist Approach to Normal and Impaired Routine Sequential Action. Psychological Review, 111(2), 395-429.
Cadieu, C., Kouh, M., Pasupathy, A., Conner, C., Riesenhuber, M., & Poggio, T.A. (2007). A Model of V4 Shape Selectivity and Invariance. J Neurophysiol, 98, 1733-1750.
Cox, William T. L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Devine, Patricia G.; Hollon, Steven D. (2012). “Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Depression: The Integrated Perspective”. Perspectives on Psychological Science 7 (5): 427–449.
Gorton, Gregg E (2005). Milton Hyland Erickson The American Journal of Psychiatry. Washington. Vol.162, Iss. 7.
Gureckis, T.M., & Love, B.C. (2010) Direct Associations or Internal Transformations? Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Sequential Learning Behavior. Cognitive Science, 34, 10-50.
Jones, M.N., & Mewhort, D.J.K. (2007). Representing word meaning and order information in a composite holographic lexicon. Psychological Review, 114, 1-37.



Intent in Persuasive Manipulation

By definition Persuasion and Manipulation differ in intent. In case of pure persuasion, both parties benefit, on contrary manipulator is sole beneficiary. In case of the Persuasive Manipulation, the target person(s) receives benefit of adjustment, because result of factual rearrangements leads to creative enrichment. While PM inducer can reap some temporary advantage, in long term, flexibility in associative neuro-connections produces major educational effect. The mental faculty of deliberate choices (will) gets trained and volition of future actions becomes more decisive upon a course of future actions.